Bazaar is a distributed version control system that makes it easier for people to work together on software projects.
Over the next five minutes, you’ll learn how to put your files under version control, how to record changes to them, examine your work, publish it and send your work for merger into a project’s trunk.
This guide doesn’t describe how to install Bazaar but it’s usually very easy. You can find installation instructions at:
Bazaar records changes to source code, and it records who made the change. The person is identified by their name and email address. (If you’re concerned about spam, you don’t need to use a real address that you actually read, but the convention is that it looks like an email address.)
Before you start working, let’s tell Bazaar who you are. Using your name and email address, instead of John Doe’s, type:
$ bzr whoami "John Doe <firstname.lastname@example.org>"
You can check what identity is stored in Bazaar’s configuration:
$ bzr whoami John Doe <email@example.com>
Let’s suppose we want to store a new project under Bazaar. First, we’ll make a repository directory to hold all our work related to this project, where developers can create branches to test development of specific features or, more generally, modifications to the working file set.
After creating the repository, change to that directory, and create the project’s main trunk branch.
$ bzr init-repo sample Shared repository with trees (format: 2a) Location: shared repository: sample $ bzr init sample/trunk $ cd sample/trunk Created a repository tree (format: 2a) Using shared repository: /home/john/sample/
Now that we have the trunk, we need to move to that directory and create some example files for the first version of that project. Create a file test1.txt using a text editor (like emacs, nano, or notepad), and save it. Then we’ll “add” the file, which tells bzr we want it to track changes:
bzr add test1.txt
and then commit, which saves a snapshot of all versioned files:
bzr commit -m "Added first line of text"
Let’s change a file and commit that change to your branch.
Edit test1.txt in your favourite editor, then use bzr add to tell bzr to track changes to this file
$ echo test test test > test1.txt $ bzr add test1.txt adding test1.txt
bzr diff shows the changes between the last revision in this branch, and your current tree (or, with the -r option, between any two trees).
$ bzr diff === modified file 'test1.txt' --- test1.txt 2007-10-08 17:56:14 +0000 +++ test1.txt 2007-10-08 17:46:22 +0000 @@ -0,0 +1,1 @@ +test test test
Commit your work to the Bazaar branch:
$ bzr commit -m "Added first line of text" Committing to: /home/john/sample/trunk/ added test1.txt Committed revision 1.
You can see the history of your branch by browsing its log:
$ bzr log revno: 1 committer: John Doe <firstname.lastname@example.org> branch nick: trunk timestamp: Mon 2006-10-08 17:46:22 +0000 message: Initial import
Launchpad is a suite of development and hosting tools for software projects. You can use it to publish your branch. (You can also publish branches onto your own server or other hosting services.)
The steps to publishing branches on Launchpad are:
Bazaar uses the SSH encryption and authentication protocol to connect to Launchpad. You need to first create an SSH key on your own computer, by running the command:
Tell Bazaar your Launchpad account name. If your account is john.doe, type
$ bzr launchpad-login john.doe
Push the branch for your project. Once you’ve committed your changes locally, you can publish them as the trunk of your new project by saying
$ bzr push lp:~sample-developers/sample/trunk
(Of course, using the team and project names you just chose.)
To work with someone else’s code, you can make your own copy of their branch. Let’s take a real-world example, Bazaar’s GTK interface:
$ bzr init-repo ~/bzr-gtk $ bzr branch lp:~bzr/bzr-gtk/trunk ~/bzr-gtk/john Branched 292 revision(s).
Bazaar will download all the files and complete revision history from the bzr-gtk project’s trunk branch and create a copy called john.
Now, you have your own copy of the branch and can commit changes with or without a net connection. You can share your branch at any time by publishing it and, if the bzr-gtk team want to use your work, Bazaar makes it easy for them to merge your branch back into their trunk branch.
While you commit changes to your branch, it’s likely that other people will also continue to commit code to the parent branch.
To make sure your branch stays up to date, you should merge changes from the parent into your personal branch:
$ bzr merge Merging from saved parent location: http://bazaar.launchpad.net/~bzr/bzr-gtk/trunk All changes applied successfully.
Check what has changed:
$ bzr diff
If different branches have made changes to the same areas of the same files, then merging them may generate conflicts. When this happens, Bazaar puts text markers like <<<<<<< into the files, and records them in a list of conflicted files. You should edit the files to reflect the way you want to resolve the conflicts, use bzr diff to check the changes, and then bzr resolve to mark them as resolved.
If you’re happy with the changes, you can commit them to your personal branch:
$ bzr commit -m "Merge from main branch" Committed revision 295.
You can find out more about Bazaar in the Bazaar User Guide.
To learn about Bazaar on the command-line:
$ bzr help
To learn about the ‘’foo’’ topic or command:
$ bzr help foo